## Sunday, August 17, 2014

### a bit of uva: UVa 10125 - Sumsets

Problem Statement:
UVa 10125 - Sumsets

Summary:
Given a set $$S$$ of distinct integers, find the largest $$d$$ such that $$a + b + c = d$$ where $$a,b,c,d$$ are all distinct elements in S.

Simple brute force approach will give an $$O(N^4)$$ complexity, which is bad since $$|S|$$ can be as large as 1000 in this problem. Therefore the problem begs for a more efficient approach, and indeed an $$O(N^2\lg{N})$$ solution exist, and we need to utilize binary search to achieve this running time.

Firstly, notice that the problem can be restated as finding $$a,b,c,d$$ that satisfy $$a+b = d - c$$. This simple restatement of the problem has a huge implication: we can find all possible values of $$a+b$$ in $$O(N^2)$$ time, similarly for $$d-c$$, hence total we need $$O(N^2)$$ to generate all $$a+b$$ and all $$d-c$$, which can be stored in two arrays or vectors, say $$P$$ and $$Q$$ respectively. Next, we sort $$P$$ and $$Q$$. Why sorting? so that we can do a binary search! From here on the task is simple; we need to try all elements in $$P$$ and find whether there exist an element with the same value in $$Q$$. If there is, then check whether they have distinct $$a,b,c,d$$, and if so we update our answer on $$d$$.

Each binary search has time complexity of $$O(\lg{N^2})$$, which happen $$N^2$$ times, so we have running time of $$O(N^2\lg{N})$$ over all. Beautiful isn't it.